Nanoparticles have intermediate properties between atoms (molecules) and bulk crystals. We explore the frontiers of synthesis, higher-order structuring, and functionalization of nanoparticles. In addition, we aim to develop the practical applications of nanoparticles in collaboration with industry. Our research in JAIST has focused on two main areas of interest in the field of materials chemistry and nanotechnology. The first area involved wet chemical synthesis of semiconductor nanoparticles with controlled size, shape and composition for optoelectronic and thermoelectric device applications. The second area has focused on the synthesis and biological application development of monometallic and alloyed multimetallic nanoparticles.