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Phase of the second order nonlinear susceptibility at the interface of indium tin oxide/organic semiconductor

Muhammad Samir Ullah1,3, Siti Zulaikha Ngah Demon4, Kazuki Matsumoto1, Khuat Thi Thu Hien1, Goro Mizutani1 and Harvey Rutt2

1School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan
2School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ,U.K.
3Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
4Department of Physics, Center of Defence Foundation Studies, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 53 000, Malaysia

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We have studied the phase of the second order nonlinear susceptibility at the interface of organic semiconductor with the indium tin oxide (ITO) through the nonlinear optical interferometry technique. In order to produce second harmonic generation (SHG) interference pattern, we used an α-SiO2 (0001) crystal as the nonlinear optical reference SHG source. The variation of the phase delay between two SHG sources produces an interference pattern in air from which phase of the second order nonlinear optical susceptibility can measured. The phase shift was computed at the interface of ITO/organic semiconductor with respect to the phase of the bare ITO.